All articles with corrosive, natural, flammable, toxic and explosive properties, which are liable to cause personal casualties and property damage during transportation, handling and storage and need special protection, are dangerous goods. Hazardous goods have special physical and chemical properties. If they are not properly protected in transportation, they are prone to accidents, and the consequences of accidents are more serious than those of ordinary vehicle accidents. Therefore, in order to ensure safety, the following eight points should be paid attention to in dangerous transportation:
1. Packing dangerous goods should be packed safely according to their nature, transportation distance and road condition before shipment. Packaging must be firm and tight, and clear, standardized and easily identifiable marks should be made on the packaging.
2. Pay attention to the road, lighting, signs and fire fighting facilities at the loading and unloading site of dangerous goods, which must meet the requirements of safe loading and unloading. When handling dangerous goods, cars should be parked in the open air. Handlers should pay attention to their own protection and wear necessary protective equipment. Strictly abide by the operating rules, light loading, light unloading, strictly prohibit falling, impact, rollover, heavy pressure and inversion, afraid of damp goods covered by tarpaulin, goods must be stacked neatly and firmly bound. Dangerous goods of different nature should not be mixed with vehicles, such as detonators, explosives and so on.
3. Attention must be paid to the selection of suitable vehicles for the transport of dangerous goods by vehicles. Explosives, primary oxidants and organic oxides shall not be transported by trailers, tricycles, motorcycles, manpower tricycles and bicycles; explosives, primary oxidants, organic peroxides and primary combustibles shall not be transported by tractors. Except for the second class fixed dangerous goods, other dangerous goods shall not be transported by dump trucks.
4. Pay attention to fire prevention and transportation of dangerous goods, dangerous goods should be loaded and unloaded with tools that do not spark, smoking is strictly prohibited in the carriage, and vehicles should not be near open fires, high temperature places and places exposed to the sun. Oil tanker trucks should be equipped with good wires when parking, loading and unloading. Ground wires should be touched to prevent static electricity from causing fire.
5. Attention should be paid to driving vehicles carrying dangerous goods. The signs stipulated in GB13392-92 Vehicle Signs for Road Transportation of Dangerous Goods should be set up. Vehicle operation must strictly abide by traffic, fire control, public security and other laws and regulations. Vehicle speed should be controlled, distance from the front car should be maintained, speed should be slowed down ahead of time when circumstances arise, emergency braking should be avoided, overtaking in violation of regulations should be strictly prohibited, and driving safety should be ensured.
6. Pay attention to the leakage of dangerous goods in the process of shipment, should be properly handled according to the different nature of dangerous goods. When explosives are scattered, they should be moved to a safe place, repaired or replaced, and the leaked explosives should be wetted with water in time. The local public security firefighters should deal with them. When the tank storing compressed or liquefied gases leaks, they should be moved to a ventilation site to pour water on the leaking cylinders to cool down. When liquid ammonia leaks, they can be immersed in water. Other highly toxic gases should be immersed in lime water. When flammable solid articles are scattered, they should be moved to safety place quickly. When yellow phosphorus is scattered, they should be immersed in water immediately. Metal sodium and potassium must be immersed in iron barrels filled with kerosene or anhydrous liquid paraffin. When flammable liquid leaks, they should be moved up in time and repaired or replaced in safe ventilation places. Leakages should be cleaned after being covered with yellow sand and dry soil.
7. Note that vehicles loaded with dangerous goods shall not be parked in schools, organs, fairs, places of interest and historic sites or scenic spots. If loading and unloading operations or temporary parking must be carried out in the above-mentioned areas, safety measures shall be taken and the consent of the local public security department shall be obtained. When parking, people should be left behind to guard, idle and miscellaneous personnel are not allowed to approach the vehicle, so that the vehicle is in the presence of people to ensure the safety of the vehicle.
8. Attention should be paid to cleaning the residues after unloading dangerous goods. Vehicles and tools contaminated by dangerous goods must be washed and detoxified. Without thorough detoxification, it is strictly forbidden to ship food, medicinal articles, feed and animals and plants.